QUIC and HTTP / 3: the evolution of the HTTP protocol.
It was the year 2013, when Google announced that it had started working on a new solution that could speed up web browsing even more, and the name chosen for this new protocol was QUIC, which for Google corresponded to the acronym Quick UDP Internet Connection.
There was a protocol in the minds of programmers that guaranteed greater security, fast navigation and fewer latency issues, which involved passing the TCP protocol.
So, in 2013 Google made the project public and started to develop and test it also on a large scale. After less than two years, in 2015, Google provided the first draft of the QUIC to the international body IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to start the standardization process. From that moment on, the QUIC-IETF version has followed its own development and evolution, completely independent of the Google version. In the meantime, the QUIC version of Google has been widely tested by both Google and Facebook.
Subsequently, IETF decided that the new protocol would be based on UDP and TLS 1.3, dividing its development into QUIC (transport) and HTTP-over-QUIC.
QUIC (IETF), therefore, is the transport protocol for the new version of HTTP, ie HTTP / 3.
An important difference between HTTP / 3 and HTTP / 2 is the speed. If HTTP / 2 had already speeded up and streamlined the page download process, thanks to QUIC, HTTP / 3 can increase the speed even more, since QUIC allows instant dialogue (0-RTT => 0 Round Trip Time) with a server with which he had previously talked (and 1-RTT otherwise), unlike connections that use TCP or TCP + TLS, protocols that need multiple round-trip routes before the contents of a website can be viewed .
The image (provided by Google) shows how, using the QUIC protocol, the time required to establish the connection with a page never visited is a third of what is used with a connection that uses the TCP + TLS protocols.
In October 2018, Mark Nottingham (president of the IETF working group on QUIC and HTTP) officially asked to change the name of the HTTP-over-QUIC protocol (i.e. the name that was given to the HTTP protocol by exchanging TCP for QUIC) in HTTP / 3, a proposal which was subsequently approved by the other members of the IETF.
On the W3Techs website, some data updated in August 2019 on the use of QUIC for websites are available. As can easily be seen, the percentage is still very low (slightly over 3%), but it is also true that the road to standardization is still long.
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